Questions & Answers – Guidance for ARAMCO evaluation.
A. Sailing Experience or your CV Questions:
- How long have you been (Ch.Officer or Master)?, Refer to your CV/Seaman Book
- How long have you been working in off shore?, Refer to your CV/Seaman Book
- What was your last vessel ? and what type? Refer to your CV/Seaman Book
B. Rules of The Road (International Collision Regulation)
- Rule 5 : Look Out
- Rule 6 : Safe Speed
- Rule 7 : Risk of Collision
- Rule 8 : Action to avoid collision
- Rule 9 : Narrow Channels
- Rule 10 : Traffic separation scheme
- Rule 12 : Sailing Vessel
- Rule 13 : Overtaking
- Rule 14 : Head-on Situation
- Rule 15 : Crossing situation
- Rule 16 : Action by give-way vessel
- Rule 17 : Action by Stand-on vessel
- Rule 18 : Responsibilities between vessel
- Light, shape and sound signal of vessel underway in restricted visibility? Lights : Masthead lights / Side lights / Stern Light. Sound signals : _ (One long blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes)
- Light, shape and sound signal of vessel underway but stopped / no making way through the water in restricted visibility? Lights : Masthead lights / Side lights / Stern Light. Sound signals : (Two long blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes)
- Light, shape and sound signal of vessel Not under command in restricted visibility? Lights : Two all-round red lights, when making way through the water in addition; Side lights / Stern Light. Sound signals : . . (One long blast followed by two short blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes) Shape : Two Balls
- Light, shape and sound signal of Towing vessel in restricted visibility?Lights : Two mast head lights in a vertical line, when the towing line exceed 200 M, Three mast head lights / Side lights / Stern light / Towing light, If restricted in her ability to manoeuvre, three all-round light: Red / White / Red, Sound signals : _ . . (One long blast followed by two short blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes) Shape : Three shapes in vertical line ( Ball / Diamond / Ball) and Diamond shapes
- Light, shape and sound signals of Vessel being towed in restricted visibility? Lights : Side lights / Stern light Sound signals : . . . (One long blast followed by three short blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes, immediately after the signal made by the towing vessel) Shape : When the towing line exceeds 200 M, a diamond shapes
- Light, shape and sound signal of vessel Restricted in her Ability to manoeuvre in restricted visibility?Lights : Three all-round lights in a vertical line, Red / White / Red. When making way through the water, Masthead lights / side lights / stern light. Sound signals : . . (One long blast followed by two short blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes) Shapes : Three shapes in vertical line ( Ball / Diamond / Ball)
- Light, shape and sound signal of vessel at anchor in restricted visibility? Lights : In the forepart, an All-round White light and Stern part lower level than fore light, an All-round white light, all working light to illuminate deck. Sound Signals : At intervals of not more than one minute Rapidly ringing on the bell at about 5 Seconds, and in addition may give three sound blast namely one short, one long and one short ( . . ) Shapes : One Ball
- Light, shape and sound signal of vessel Aground in restricted visibility? Lights : In the forepart an All-round White light and Stern part lower level than fore light an All-round white light and Two all-round red lights in a vertical, Sound Signals : At intervals of not more than one minute Rapidly ringing on the bell at about 5 Seconds, and in addition may give three sound blast namely one short, one long and one short ( . _ . ) In addition ship aground shall give three separate and distinct strokes on the bell immediately before and after rapidly ringing of the bell. A Vessel aground may in addition sound an appropriate whistle signal. Shapes : Three balls in a vertical line.
- Light, shape and sound signal of Pilot vessel in restricted visibility? Lights : Two all-round lights in a vertical line: White / Red. When underway in addition Side lights / Stern light. Sound signals : . . . . (Four short blast during pillotage duty) Shape : International code flag “H”
- Light, shape and sound signal of vessel Constrained by her draft in restricted visibility? Lights : Three all-round Red lights in a vertical line. When making way through the water, Masthead lights / side lights / stern light. Sound signals : _ . . (One long blast followed by two short blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes) Shapes : Cylinder
- Light, shape and sound signal of Vessel engage in Dredging or underwater operation in restricted visibility? Lights : Three all-round lights: Red / White / Red. When making way through the water: Masthead lights / side lights / stern lights. In addition, when obstruction exists, exhibited: Two all round red lights to indicate the side on which the obstructions exist Two all round green lights to indicate the side on which another vessel may pass Sound signals : . . (One long blast followed by two short blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes), Shape : Three shapes in vertical line ( Ball / Diamond / Ball). when obstruction exists, exhibited: Two Balls to indicate the side on which the obstruction exist, Two Diamonds to indicate the side on which another vessel may pass , International code flag “A”, not less than one meter in height.
- Light, shape and sound signal of vessel engage in mine clearance operation in restricted visibility?
Lights : Three all-round Green lights on the foremast head and each end on the foremast.
Shapes : Three Balls on the foremast head and each end on the foremast.
These lights or shapes to indicates that it’s dangerous for another vessel to approach within 1000 M of the mine clearance vessel.
14. Light, shape and sound signal of Fishing vessel engage in Trawling in restricted visibility?
Lights : Two all-round lights in a vertical line: Green / White, a masthead light abaft of and higher than the all-round green light. When underway in addition Side lights / Stern light
Sound signals : . . (One long blast followed by two short blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes) Shape : Two cones with their apexes together 15. Light, shape and sound signal of Vessel engage in fishing other than Trawling in restricted visibility? Lights : Two all-round lights in a vertical line: Red / White, a masthead light abaft of and higher than the all-round red light. When underway in addition Side lights / Stern light, an all-round white light in the direction of the outlying gear Sound signals : . . (One long blast followed by two short blast at intervals not more than 2 minutes)
Shape : Two cones with their apexes together and a cone with apex upwards
16. Manoeuvring signals
One short blast ( . ) = “I am altering my course to starboard”
Two short blast ( . . ) = “I am altering my course to port”
Three short blast ( . . . ) = “I am operating astern propulsion”
Two long blast followed by one long blast ( . ) = “I intend to overtake on your starboard side”
Two long blast followed by one long blast ( . . ) = “I intend to overtake on your Port side”
one long / one short / one long blast ( . _ . ) = “Affirmative, To give by overtaken vessel indicate her agreement” Five short blast ( . . . . . ) = “Vessel fails to understand the intention or actions of other or I Doubt” 17. Definitions sound and light signals Masthead light, means white light on centreline showing over arc of the horizon of 225 degrees and so fixed as to show the light from right ahed to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on either side of the vessel, Visible at range 6 Miles (Vessel LOA > 50 M) Sidelights, means lights on the each side showing light over an arc of the horizon of 112.5 degrees and so fixed as to show the light from right ahead to 22.5 degrees abaft the beam on the side, Visible at range 3 Miles (Vessel LOA > 50 M) Stern Lights, means a white light placed in stern showing light over an arc of the horizon of 135 degrees and so fixed as to show the light 67.5 degrees from right aft on each side of the vessel, Visible at range 3 Miles. (Vessel LOA > 50 M) Short Blast, means a blast of about one Second duration Prolonged Blast, means a blast of from Four to six second duration, The light used for warning signals shall be visible at range 5 Miles. 18. What action to be taken when vessels are on reciprocal courses? When two power driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal courses so as to involve risk of collision, Each shall alter her course to starboard so that each shall pass on the port side of the other. 19. What action to be taken when vessels are crossing situation? When two power driven are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel which has the other vessel on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way and avoid crossing ahead of the other vessel. 20. What action to be taken when vessels are overtaking one another? Any vessel overtaking any other shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken. 21. How you know that you are the overtaking vessel? By night , I will be able to see the stern light of the other vessel. And By day, My vessel will be coming up with another vessel from a direction more than 22.5 degrees abaft her beam. 22. At a clear night you sighted a white light, what does it mean to you? It can be the stern light of a vessel. // or it can be a small fishing boat// or a small sailing boat//or vessel at anchor less than 50m //or a masthead light of the vessel less than 50m and far away that side lights cannot be sighted yet.
23. You are crossing separation scheme with the following ships using it: – One vessel coming up from your portside and another coming down from your starboard side. What is your action? I will wait until both vessels are clear then I will cross the separation scheme on a heading as nearly as practicable at “Right angles to the general direction of traffic flow” But as per COLREG, The two above vessels using the separation scheme are not relieved from her/their obligations under any other rule. Which means that also the vessels using separation scheme shall comply with all other rules of collision prevention and shall take action to avoid collision accordingly? Refer to Rule 10a. 24. What is the sound signal for a platform? Two short blasts followed by one long blast ( . . ) “U” = You are running into a danger.
25. What action you will do if you sighted a vessel aground ahead of you?
First thing I will stop engines and keep in position, check my position on the chart, and turn the vessel to reciprocal course, get away from the area.
26. If you are steaming in fog and you heard the sound of . . __ ( U ), What action you will take?
I will Stop the Engines, check my position using radar and GPS on chart and turn the vessel on reciprocal course away from the sound.
27. A vessel towing a Rig and showing only towing shapes or lights and crossing from your port side on collision course, what is your action?
If the towing vessel is not showing the shapes or lights of restricted in her ability to manoeuvre then the towing vessel should take action to avoid any collision. But if the towing vessel is showing that she is restricted in her ability to manoeuvre then I have to take action to avoid collision.
28. Is it allowed to cross Traffic separation scheme, and how?
Yes. To cross the separation scheme on a heading as nearly as practicable at “Right angles to the general direction of traffic flow”
29. If you detected a vessel crossing on your port side, then which is the give way vessel and which is the stand on vessel?
The vessel on my port side is the give way vessel and she must take action to avoid collision.
30. Reference to the above question. If the other vessel did not take any actions then what will you do?
I will take action to avoid collision, by altering course to starboard keep away from that vessel, even if I have to make full turn to starboard.
31. During in restricted visibility and your vessel only detect the presence of another vessel with a risk of collision exist (Close quarter situation is developing), what action to be taken in this condition?
I shall take avoiding action in ample time and avoid the below action:
Avoid an alteration of course to port for a vessel forward of the beam, other than for a vessel being overtaken
Avoid an alteration of course towards a vessel abeam or abaft the beam (Rule 19D)
32. What are necessary precautions to be taken when the vessel in restricted visibility?
Reduce speed for safe manoeuvring speed (Rule: 6/19)
Post and keep proper look out by sight and hearing (Rule 5)
Inform duty engineer for standby and keep M/E ready for immediate manoeuvre.
Start give sound signal (Rule 35) and switch on navigation light (Rule 20)
Properly use of Radar/ARPA equipment to obtain early warning risk of collision (Switch on both Radar, one in a long range 6 – 12 NM and one in a short range 1 – 3 NM)
Frequently check position of the vessel and plotting course, any dangerous object for navigation to be clearly marked and avoided
Switch on echo-sounder to keep seabed line under control
Use manual steering
33. What action to be taken when vessel negotiating area of shallow water
Shallow water as per MIM No.1198.002 is starting from depth 10 M or less
Switch on echo-sounder to keep seabed line under control
Reduce speed for “Safe Speed” to avoid any squat effect
Check vessel UKC using tide table and comply with minimum UKC requirement as per MIM
Inform duty engineer for standby and keep M/E for emergency manoeuvre.
Frequently check position on the chart and plotting course
Maintain good look out, use manual steering and check tide/weather condition
Density of navigation traffic, dangerous area for navigation and reporting procedure of VTS-communication
B. Oil/Gas field procedure
1. How to identify an H2S emission, and what will you do?
H2S (Hydrogen sulphide) is a colourless and flammable gas and highly poisonous, that smells like “Rotten egg”. H2S is heavier than air, easily spread by wind and soluble in water.
Action to be taken during tied-up the Rig in case of “GAS ALERT” asf:
Smell like rotten egg and auto gas alarm will be sounded
Start emergency gas alarm . (Two long blast followed by one short blast)
Immediately to wear EEBD or SCBA and assist the other crew to wear SCBA
All crew proceed to muster station at Bridge or run to the high level area in the bridge/monkey island, never come back to level area without properly wear SCBA
All port holes, doors and ventilation must be closed and switch off.
Crew with proper SCBA and portable gas detector proceed to unmooring operation.
Pull out the vessel from the platform and proceed to windward location and continue monitoring “Gas alarm”
The potential H2S hazard can be substantially reduced by operating the vessel’s protective water spray systems and the Off-ship Fire-Fighting Monitors in a full spray pattern
Broadcast information to the other station by VHF Radio “Location, Time, Wind direction” and Report to the port control and Field service as per Emergency response plan.
2. What will you do before entering or leaving the Oilfield/Rig?
Obtain permission from Field service or Rig Foreman
500 M Zone check list to be fully completed and recorded in the Log book
Maximum speed entering 500 M zone is 3 Knots and within 100 M zone is 0.5 Knots
No “Head on” when approaching and use manual steering
At a ‘Safe’ distance from the Offshore Structure, no closer than four Vessel lengths, the Master will STOP the Vessel in the water, to ascertain wind and tide effect on the Vessel at that location.
3. If you sighted a Spar Buoy located close to the Rig, what does it mean?
Where a Spar Buoy has been deployed at a Rig/Barge location to indicate the safe “Drop anchor” position to avoid any pipe lines (We may find it close to some rig only which has a pipe line near its location), we shall use the Spar Buoy purely as an aid to navigation, and should anchor between the Spar Buoy and the side of the Rig/Barge, and NEVER on the far side of the buoy.
4. What are the documents to be received prior loading bulk liquid mud cargoes on board?
Prior to loading the vessel must receive the following documents:
· Cargo manifest
· Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
· Storage and circulation instructions.
5. When will you start your M/E during Tied up to the Rig?
Main engines shall be activated whenever:
· Wind or surface current speeds exceed 16 knots or 1.0 knot respectively.
· Combined sea and swell is in excess of 5ft (1.5 meters).
· When another supply vessel is going to be secured alongside.
· Anchoring in poor holding grounds or in shallow water where the under keel clearance (UKC) is less than twice the draft of the vessel.
6. When the snatching material is not permitted at the offshore installation?
· Snatching of materials is not permitted when sea height exceeds 1.5 meters
· Whenever more than 45% thruster or main engine power is required to maintain position whilst snatching alongside an offshore installation, then the vessel must pull clear and not return until conditions are safe to resume operation.
C. MARINE DEPARTMENT PROCEDURE – MARINE INTRUCTION MANUAL
1. What is the allowed speed in Tanajib channel or estuaries, and Harbour in normal clear day?
The maximum speed in the channel is 8 knots and within the harbour is 5 knots.
2. What to do before leaving or entering the harbour?
Obtain permission from the port control
3. What is the working VHF channel in Aramco oil fields and related harbors?
VHF Channel. 11
4. Do you know the location of the MIM file what MIM stands for?
Identify and show him the MIM’s file in the bridge, MIM means “Marine Instruction Manual”.
5. What is the title of the following MIM’s : No. 1185.002 // 1187.002 // 1192.001 // 1193.001 // 1193.004 // 1193.005 // 1193.006 // 1193.504 // 1198.001 // 1198.002 // 1201.001?
MIM No. 1185.002 = REPORTING PROCEDURES, DOCUMENTATION AND MASTERS DUTIES FOR THE SAFE OPERATION OF ALL VESSELS
MIM No. 1187.002 = DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES FOR THE ON-DUTY MARINE SUPERINTENDENT
MIM No. 1192.001 = MARINE VESSEL OPERATING PRACTICES
MIM No. 1193.001 = MARINE PORT INFORMATION AND REGULATIONS
MIM No. 1193.004 = PROCEDURES FOR VESSELS TRANSITING THROUGH THE PORT OF RAS TANURA
MIM No. 1193.005 = MINIMUM UNDER KEEL CLEARANCE FOR MARINE VESSELS
MIM No. 1193.006 = MARINE VESSEL REQUIREMENTS FOR MANEUVERS WITHIN 500M SAFETY ZONE OF OFFSHORE STRUCTURES AND RIGS
MIM No. 1193.504 = EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN
MIM No. 1198.001 = WORK AROUND OFFSHORE PRODUCING FACILITIES (OIM NO. 1519)
MIM No. 1198.002 = OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AHTSS/RIG SUPPLY AND STANDBY VESSELS
MIM No. 1201.001 = SAFETY COMMUNICATIONS PLAN
6. How many elements in the Aramco SMS manual?
There are 11 elements .
7. In Aramco SMS identify the Masters duties and in which Element?
Element 6 in paragraph 6.9 and in Element 1 paragraph 1.3.8
8. Do you know the location of the Safety Flyers file?
9. Identify the file in the bridge and review the contents.
10. Do you know the location of GI’s File and what GI stands for?
11. Identify the file in the bridge. GI means GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS.
12. How frequently need defined position of the vessel?
The safe interval for position fixing and recording should never exceed 15 minutes within the boundaries of any offshore oilfield
· For the “Clear water” outside of oilfield boundaries should never exceed 30 minutes
13. What is procedure of “Man Overboard” recovery in open water?
· Man overboard is declared
· If victim in sight, first throw the Lifebuoy ASAP and in the night time one of the Lifebuoy should be fitted with light
· Immediately pass the MOB information to the Bridge
· Bridge actions: Sound the Alarm, Start Williamson turn, Press GPS MOB to Position fixed/marked, Post additional look out, Medical team ready and FRC ready for action.
· Rudder hard over to the side of casualty
· After deviation from original course by 060⁰, Rudder hard over to opposite side.
· When heading is 020⁰ short of opposite course, Rudder to amidships position and vessel will be turned to opposite course.
· Evacuation procedure and give First aid assistance/hypothermia treatment to the victim
· Reporting procedure as per ARAMCO MIM and company SMS Manual.
D. EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND INCIDENT REPORTING
1. What is the title of MIM No. 1193.504?
EMERGENCY RESPONSE PLAN
2. What are emergency signals on board your vessel?
There are 4 emergency signals on board:
a. Abandon Ship = • • • • • • • _ (Seven short blast followed by one long blast) b. Fire alarm/General emergency = ____ (Continuous Ringing)
c. Man Over Board = _ (Three long blast) d. Gas Alert = __ • (Two long blast followed by one short blast)
3. Emergency Reporting Actions
a. There is an emergency to Report
b. The emergency location (Provide Location, latitude/Longitude)
c. There is: (Provide nature of emergency e.g. Fire, Explosion, Gas, etc)
d. There are: (Number of people hurt and requiring medical assistance)
e. My phone number is: (Provide your telephone Number)
f. My name is: (Provide your name)
g. My badge number is: (Provide your badge number)
h. Wind direction is: (State wind direction), Check direction of windsock if possible before making the call. Evacuate and ensure that all employees are ‘up-wind’ from the smoke or gas.
4. What is your job assignment in muster station (emergency station)?
Refer to Vessel Muster station posted in the bridge.
5. Please mention at least five Distress Signals (Name and method of indicating)
a. A gun or other explosive signal fired at intervals of about a minute
b. A Continuous sounding with any Fog-signalling apparatus
c. Rocket or shells, Throwing red stars fired one at a time at short intervals
d. A signals made by any other method consisting of the Group “SOS” ( . . . / __ / . . . )
e. A signal sent by Radio telephony consisting of spoken word “Mayday”
f. The international code signal of distress indicated by “NC”
g. A Signal consisting of a square flag having above or below it a ball
h. Slowly and repeatedly raising and lowering arms outstretched to each side
i. A Distress alert by DSC transmitted on VHF Ch. 70 and or MF/HF on the frequency 2187.5 KHz, 8414.5 KHZ, 4207.5 KHz, 6312 KHz, 12577 KHz or 16804.5 KHz.
j. Distress alert transmitted by the Ship’s INMARSAT or other mobile satellite service provider ship earth station
k. Signals transmitted by EPIRB
F. USE RADAR
1. Do you know how to operate radar and take position by bearing and distance?
Practical question, we have to practice and be familiar with it.
2. Which Radar mode you will select in the Oilfield, is it the North up mode or Ship’s head up mode?
North up mode is better, because it show me the real location of each target and land the same as the chart with my course drawn on it, and will not get confused when taking bearing of each target.
3. Switch on the Radar and a quire Target using ARPA and read the information given for the Target?
Switch on Radar as per instructed and we have to be able to read the following data: Distance of the target and bearing of the target, CPA, TCPA, Speed of the target, Change radar Mode from North up to Head up, etc
4. What are the CPA and TCPA?
CPA is the Closest Point of Approach And TCPA Is the Time of Closest Point of Approach.
G. SAUDI ARAMCO TIDE TABLES
1. Definitions of ARAMCO Tide Tables:
LAT = Lowest Astronomical Tide
HAT = Highest Astronomical Tide
ISLW = Indian Spring Low Water
MSL = Mean Sea Level
2. Explanation of Spring Tides, Neap tides, Ebb Tides and Flood Tides?
Spring Tides = Maximum range tides about every 14 days during the full moon or new moon (At about 2 knots stronger current in open waters)
Neap Tides = Minimum Range tides occur at quarter phases of the moon (Weaker current)
Ebb Tides = When water is decreasing from high to low
Flood Tides = When water is increasing from low to high
3. Familiarity with ARAMCO Tide tables, interpolation and terminology?
Semi Diurnal = The Tide have two low tides and Two high tides each day. The fully “SEMI DIURNAL” pattern is found in area bear Abu Sa’fah.
Diurnal = The Tides only have one signal high tide and one signal low tide each day as shown by the fully “DIURNAL” pattern at Marjan and Zuluf
Mixed = The Tides are an intermediate condition in which inequalities exist between successive high or low tides and proceed from mixed mainly “Semi Diurnal” South of Manifa to mixed mainly “Diurnal” from Manifa North to Safania
Ebb tide current north of Juáymah set to “Southeast” and Flood Tide current set to “Northwest”. However from Ras tanura south into the bay of salwah, the reverse pattern is evidence.
4. In Aramco Tide table there are three formats for each Station (Familiarize yourself how to use for each format).
Tide graphs are used to determine the overall pattern for the period desired.
High / Low Tide calendar = Height and time of the Highest and lowest water only.
Hourly prediction = Particulars time and level.
5. Do you know how to use Aramco Tide table?
Practical question, practice it to calculate under keel clearance using Aramco tide table.
6. Echo sounder is showing 12 M depth under keel, your draft is 3.5 m .What is the depth over whole in feet?
Depth over whole = 12 + 3.5= 15.5m /// In feet = 15.5 x 3.28 = 50.84 feet.
7. What is the minimum Under Keel Clearance (UKC) allowed for Vessel under charter ARAMCO?
Minimum UKC for Crossing over pipeline/subsea installation = 5 M or more
Minimum UKC Over the seabed other than crossing over pipeline = 1 M or more
Minimum UKC A/Side at Piers/Port/Facility = 0.3 M
8. What is the meaning of UKC
UKC = Under Keel Clearance is a distance measured vertically from the lowest of a vessel (Keel) to the closest underwater (seabed, pipeline, structure, etc)
9. Charted depth 3.7 M, Draft 3.2 M, Height of tide 1.6 M. What is the Under keel clearance? Is it allowed to pass a pipe line at this clearance?
Total Depth = Charted depth + High Tide = 3.7 M + 1.6 M = 5.3 M
UKC = Total Depth – Draft = 5.3 M – 3.2 M = 2.1 M
Allowing 1 M for pipe line height then clearance = 1.1 M (Not allowed to cross pipeline)
10. If you are obligated to pass pipe line less than 5 meters, what you will do?
I will call the Port control and Field service to get permission and I will reduce my speed (slow speed) to avoid Squat.
11. What is the meaning of Squat?
The increase of draft due to high speed in shallow waters,
F Max = 2 x Cb x V² / 100 (Cb = 0.70, V = Speed in knots). Refer to brown nautical almanac page 625 – 626
To reduce effect of the squat, you must reduce your speed and minimum UKC at least 0.3 M on the soft seabed ground and 0.4 M on the hard seabed grounds.
12. The Examiner (RMM) should require Master/Mates to plotting course on the chart from one place to another place. In this case, just remember about minimum UKC crossing over pipelines is 5 Meters. You may be so long around but ensure your plotting course have clearance 5 Meters.
Remember: UKC = (Charted Depth + Predicted tide) – Present Draft = Minimum 5 Meters during cross over pipeline!!!
H. COMPASS ERROR CALCULATION
1. What are the methods to calculate compass error?
Transit Bearing with two objects
Transiting channel using leading light
Astronomical calculation / Sun bearing
When vessel Alongside at Jetty (Compare true heading on chart with magnetic heading)
2. Where you get the compass deviation from. And where you get the variation from?
We get Deviation from compass deviation Card. And variation from the Chart on the compass rose.
3. You are Alongside at Tanajib berth No. 4, and you need to calculate compass error, what you will do? (Port side alongside)
Check on the chart Tanajib berth is 270 deg (True heading). Read the compass directly and see how much it shows and compare it with the True heading on chart (270⁰), The differences between True heading on the chart and your compass heading is a Compass error
4. The variation is 3.0 East and Deviation is 4.5 West what is the compass error?
Compass error = Variation + Deviation = 3.0 + (- 4.5) = – 1.5 = 1.5 W
5. Magnetic compass reading is 245⁰ and variation = 2.5 West and Deviation=1.5 West. What is the true course?
Compass error = Variation + Deviation = 2.5 W + 1.5 W = 4 West
True course = Magnetic Course + Compass Error = 245 + (– 4) = 241⁰ ( Error west compass best)
6. Calculate compass error by Sun, Explain how you do it?
Date: 01 October 2013 at 06.15.10 LT (03.15.10 UTC)
Ship’s position = 27 34.83 N / 050 04.02 E
Ō Gyro bearing = 096
Gyro course = 331, Magnetic course = 330
Find compass error?
From Brown’s Nautical almanac page 203
3 47.50 (+)
From nautical almanac (Increment and correction) page 273
050 04.02 (+)
Longitude (East = +) and (West = -)
03 12.8 S
From nautical almanac
From nautical almanac (Increment and correction)
03 13.0 S
Norrie’s table page 398 (Base on Latitude and LHA)
0.05 S (+)
Norrie’s table page 399 (Base on Dec and LHA)
A and B same name (+), If A and B different name (-), C is Named the same as the greater of A or B quantity
S 82.5 E
Norris page 410, The azimuth is named S because C is S and E because HA is between 180 – 360
From T az = S 82.5 E = 180 – 82.5 = 97.5
2.9 E (-)
From chart (Refer to compass rose on the chart)
ABC Table explanation
A = If LHA between 90 – 270, named same as latitude otherwise opposite to latitude
B = Always named same as declination
C = If A & B same name, added (A – B) and if A & B different name, subtract (A – B)
C is named the same as the greater of A or B quantity
T az = Combined name of C (N or S) and LHA (E or W)
If LHA between 0 – 180 / 360 – 540, Named W
If LHA between 180 – 360 / 540 – 720, Named E
I. CURRENT SET AND DRIFT CALCULATION
1. There are several methodologies to calculate set and drift and plotting an estimated position.
You may refer to Brown’s Nautical Almanac page 334 – 335 for more details. With the below formula:
b² = a² + c² – 2.a.c Cosβ
Angle of inclination = True course – Current set
Ratio = Speed current : Ship’s speed
a = Rate (Speed current)
c = Ship’s speed (True course)
b = Speed over ground (Course over ground)
β = 180 – Angle of inclination
TABLE A: Angle (α) between true course and course over the ground.
Angle of inclination between Current (Set) and True course (In degrees)
Find a course over the ground if a vessel speed 20 knots, steers 270 T (True course), set by a current 200 T, Rate 5 knots?
Ratio = Rate : Ship’s speed = 5 : 20 = 0.25
Angle of inclination = 270⁰ – 200⁰ = 070⁰
Entering the table with 0.25 as Ratio and 70⁰ as Angle of inclination between current (set) and true course, we found 12.2⁰, which applied in a southerly direction, the same direction as the set of the current, so that Course over the ground = 270⁰ – 12.2⁰ = 257.8⁰
β = 180⁰ – Angle of inclination = 180⁰ – 70⁰ = 110⁰
b² = a² + c² – 2.a.c Cosβ
= 5² + 20² – 2 . 5 . 20 Cos 110⁰
= 25 + 400 – 200 (- 0.342)
= 425 – ( – 68.4) = 493.4
b = √493.4 = 22.2 Knots
Speed over the ground = 22.2 Knots
2. How do you ascertain wind and tide effect on the Vessel at the location before approaching offshore installation.
I will stop Main engine and check the vessel movement on the Radar or GPS
Compare between Course steers (True) and Speed over the ground on the GPS or Radar
3. What is the meaning of Course made good?
It is the actual course steered by the vessel under the influence of current Wind and swell.
4. Your vessel true course is 175 and course made good is 160, what is the required course to steer to maintain your true course?
Effect of the current, wind and swell = 175 – 160 = 15.
Course to steer = 175 + 15 = 190
I have to set the course to 190 so my true course will remain 175.
J. KNOWLEDGE OF SAFETY EQUIPMENT
1. What is SART? How it works and appear on Radar?
SART = Search And Rescue Radar Transponder, It works and appear on X band Radar only (3 cm) Radar. It appears as 12 Dots on the Radar screen. The closest dot to the Radar screen centre is the position of the SART(Survival Craft), once the vessel coming close the SART the 12 Dots will appear as Arch on the RADAR screen.
2. What is EPIRB?
EPIRB = Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (406 MHz) is a device which works to transmit a vessel code and position via Satellite COSPAS system to a land station which will direct and guide other vessels or helicopters to rescue operation.
3. What is SCBA and do you know how to put on and safely use the breathing apparatus?
SCBA = Self Contained Breathing Apparatus. Working period of SCBA is at about 30 – 45 minutes depending on capacity and weight of the cylinder.
You must be able to practice to wear SCBA (important)
4. What is EEBD?
EEBD = Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
5. Check your vessel Safety and Fire Plan to be more know for the number and location of the LSA/FFE on your vessel.
K. KNOWLEDGE OF OWN VESSEL
1. What is the size of the Towing wire? and length?, Check your vessel particular
2. What is the size of Stretcher, Fuse wire and Tugger wire on your vessel?, Check vessel particular
3. What is the output capacity of the fire monitor(M3/Hrs)?, Check your vessel particular
4. What is the bollard bull of the vessel?, Check your vessel particular
5. What is the horse power of the engines?, Check your vessel particular
6. What is the power of the bow thrusters?, Check your vessel particular
7. What is the pumping capacity of the ballast pump?, Check your vessel particular
8. What is the capacity of cargo (bulk) pump?, Check your vessel particular
9. What is the maximum and minimum draft of your vessel?, Check your vessel particulars.
10. What is the SWL of the stern roller and towing pins?, Check you vessel particulars .
11. What is the vessel capacity of Fuel oil, Fresh water and Drill water?, Check vessel particulars.
12. Do you know where is the emergency alarm button, and Engine emergency stop buttons?, check and be familiarized with buttons in the bridge.
13. Are you familiar with Starting and change over procedure from forward control to aft control.
Practical question, to practice the Starting and change over procedure of M/E control, Steering and Bow thruster control from forward to Aft.
14. Do you know the location of the following books and publications:
Stability booklet, Aramco Tide Table, Brown Nautical Almanac, Muster Station poster, Cargo Securing Manual, collision regulation booklet, General arrangement plan, Tanks Plan, safety arrangement plan.
(Familiarize yourself with location for all the above publication and manual).
L. NAVIGATIONAL CHART WORK
1. Where to find chart symbol for lights, water depth, nature of bottom, etc?
Admiralty Chart and publication number 5011 (Chart 5011)
2. What is the meaning of BA and SUR?
BA = British Admiralty Chart
SUR = Saudi Aramco Chart
3. Nature of the seabed on chart SUR 1816 “Safaniya South”
c / co
4. Familiarize yourself with Symbols and abbreviations used on the SUR Charts
M. IALA (INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF LIGHTHOUSE AUTHORITY)
N. OTHER QUESTIONS
1. Your vessel at Tanajib port, and you received a call from drilling to go for Rig Move in shallow water, which requires a draft of 3.2 even keel. What will you do and act. If your vessel have the following particulars Light ship 1100 t, drill water 220 t, fresh water 150 t, Fuel oil diesel 150 t, ballast water 220 t and approximately 60 tons Barite. Main Draft 3.7 m?
Check from stability criteria, your minimum operational towing draft.
Now Calculate Total displacement = 1100 + 200 + 150 + 150 + 220 + 60 = 1880 Tonnes
From stability booklet get the TPC at that displacement and draft (let us say TPC = 10.5 T)
Present draft – Required draft = 3.7 M – 3.2 M = 0.5 M = 50 cm.
Total Weights to be discharged = 50 X 10.5 = 525 T
Now you can discharge accordingly, from any liquids and discuss your plan with Drilling department. So he can give assistance in discharging liquids and barite if needed.
2. What is the meaning of fresh water allowance?
Change of draft (increase or decrease) due to change in water density,
3. What is the meaning of TPC?
Ton Per Centimetre = Weight in Tons to be loaded or discharged to change vessel draft by 1 cm.
4. What is the meaning of permissible load on deck?
Means how many tons the ship deck can load on one square meter. You can get it From Cargo securing manual Or vessel stability booklet.
5. A box weighing 48 tons and dimensions: length 4 m-, width 3 m, height 5 m. Can you load it on deck if you know that permissible load is 4.5 tons?
Area = length X width = 4 x 3 = 12 square meter .
Weight / area – 48/12= 4 Ton . Answer YES I can load it.
6. What is the density of Fresh water ?
7. What is the density of sea water?
8. If the TPC = 12 Tons what is the change in draft if you load a 56 ton weight.
Change of draft = weight / TPC = 56/12 = 4.5 cm. bodily sink.
9. Explain how you connect the towing wire to the bridle wire of the Rig?
Towing pins up
Pull the towing wire and lay it on deck with the socket close to the karm fork (shark jaw) using the tugger winch wire and connect it with the Stretcher using shackle 85 T
Put the tugger wire between the towing pins.
Get one long hook to collect the bridle wire of the rig and connect it to the tugger wire and start heaving up the Bridle Rig wire until it comes over the Sharkjaw .
Up the Sharkjaw with the Bridle Rig wire socket in the groove and lock it , then release tugger wire.
Connect the Stretcher socket to the Bridle Rig wire using 85 ton shackle and make sure that it is tight and locked by a split pin.
Sharkjaw down and start moving ahead slowly, Pay out the towing wire until you get the required length of tow. Then down the towing pins.
10. What are consisting of the Tow line?
Firstly, I have to know ship’s position, where is she? On Bridle (as Master Tow) or Assist (Port quarter or Starboard quarter)
As Bridle or Master Tow, the composition of Tow line are:
Towing wire (Size 57 MM)
Stretcher ( Size 88 MM x 19 M)
Bridle Rig Wire (From the Rig)
All Connection using shackle 85 Tones
As assist (Port quarter or starboard quarter)
Towing wire (Size 57 MM)
Stretcher ( Size 88 MM x 19 M)
Fuse wire (Size 42 MM x 20 M)
All Connection using shackle 85 Tones, and Soft eye end of the Fuse wire put on the Rig bollard.
11. What size and length required for towing stretcher and fuse wire?
Stretcher = Diameter 88 MM X Length 19 M to 20 M, double rope with two hard thimble ends.
Fuse wire = Diameter about 36 MM – 42 MM X Length 19 to 20 M, with one hard end and one soft wide end. (Wire Rope)
12. What is the Free Surface effect, how does it affect stability of vessel?
Free surface effect occurs when the Tanks are partially filled with liquid, during ship moving/heel, the liquid starts moving from one side to another side. The movement of the liquid surface inside the tanks will cause the VCG of the liquid to move up (Increase) and thus will reduce in GM .
The Maximum effect of free surface occurs when the tanks are 50% loaded.
To minimize this effect, keep the tanks either full or completely empty.
13. Find The Fresh Water Allowance (FWA) for a vessel of Displacement 1700 T and TPC = 9 T.
FWA = Displacement : 4 TPC = 1700 : 4 (9) = 47.2 mm.
14. A vessel of displacement 1580 t, at main draft 3.2 m, find the change in draft if sailing from sea water to a water of density 1005?
From Stability booklet onboard, obtain the TPC at that displacement, let us say TPC 11 ton.
Change of draft= FWA X (Sea water density – Dock water density) / 25
FWA= displacement/4TPC = 1580/4 x 11 = 35.9 mm.
Change of draft= 35.9 X( 1025-1005) /25 = 35.9 X 0.8 = 28.72 mm = 2.87 cm = 0.0287 (Increase in draft)
New main draft =3.20 + 0.0287 = 3.2287 m.
15. A vessel having FWA = 20 cm and load draft = 3.2 m. To what draft can this vessel load in fresh water?
FW Density = 1000, Seawater Density = 1025,
Change in draft = FWA X (seawater density – fresh water density) / 25
= 20 X ( 1025 – 1000)/25 = 20 X (25/25) = 20 X 1 =20 cm (increase in draft)
New Draft = 3.2 + 0.20 = 3.40 m.
16. How you know that you have a free surface effect.
By making Tanks sounding.
17. Which operation every day does it with ballast?
Daily sounding of ballast tanks and records in Daily sounding log should be done.
18. A box of weight 80 t. has a loading area of 16 square meters, your vessel deck have permissible load of 4.8 t. Can you load it on deck?
Calculate tons per one square meter = 80/16 = 5 t (more than permissible load)
NO I cannot load it.
O. PRACTICAL MANOEUVRE EVALUATION
All candidates Master and Chief Officers will be examined in their ability to manoeuvre the vessel.
Preparation for practical manoeuvre evaluation:
Report to port control before start engine
Start Main engine, bow thrusters and steering for manoeuvre (Use arrival/departure checklist)
Change over control from forward to aft, once everything ready report to Port control.
Cast off the vessel from jetty. The examiner will ask you to turning the vessel inside harbour, change heading (For example: Set heading from 000⁰ to 090⁰), make vessel parallel with jetty, put your stern against jetty and Bring the vessel alongside back to jetty.
Special awareness should be taken regarding the actual tide and wind condition.
All manoeuvres should be done in safely, positive and with due regard to observance of good seamanship, and not be limited in time.
Do not panic, keep calm, concentrate, feel the vessel movement and use your experience for manoeuvre the vessel.
“Manoeuvre is a science and art”.
Tanajib – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 04 December 2014
Sailor never say good bye,
They just disappear for a while
Salam dari laut,